Types of Distributed Power Architectures

Posted on

Compact DC-DC converters have made their approach into tens of millions of digital merchandise and methods. The overwhelming majority of these rely upon an AC front-end-box to transform the AC power source right into a DC voltage from which the converters function. As well as, worldwide laws have mandated that these front-end-boxes embrace Power Issue & Harmonic Correction (PFHC) to maximise the accessible power from the power grid.

Conventional Distributed Power Options

Conventional designs that make use of distributed power structure place DC-DC converters on PC boards very near the point-of-load to maximise system speeds and efficiencies. To power the DC-DC converters, the required AC-DC power provide with PFHC is often mounted someplace within the system’s enclosure, external to the primary pc-board (Determine 1).

This system is kind of cheap for many purposes. Nonetheless, in the case of gear that should be mounted outdoor and occupy the smallest attainable volume, there at the moment are improved power merchandise accessible.

Improved Power Distribution Strategies

Typical medium power (400-700 watts) PCB mounted DC-DC converters are packaged in “full brick” sizes (e.g., 2.4” W x 4.6” L x 0.5” H). A quantity of main producers of DC-DC converters have seen the necessity for, and at the moment are offering AC enter PFHC front ends in brick-formats which can be PCB mountable close to to the DC-DC converter(s). This has the benefit of putting all of the power parts on the identical pc-board thus lowering the top merchandise measurement and eliminating the power interconnect wires (Determine 2).


These AC-DC w/PFHC front-end bricks require some external parts (capacitors, resistors, and so on.), however the house required for this stuff is small compared to the elimination of the external “metallic boxed AC front finish”. And, these external parts may be robotically inserted through the manufacturing of the pc-board. An additional benefit of using these brick packages is that they are often cooled with out followers, by means of warmth sinks or chilly plates (e.g., mounting the brick bases towards the system’s metallic enclosure).

The Newest AC-DC Power “Brick” Options

Power Provide producers haven’t stopped creating smaller and higher power options. In truth, in latest instances the AC/PFHC brick talked about above has been merged with a DC-DC converter to kind the final word power answer; an AC/PFHC/DC built-in brick. These 2-in-1 gadgets settle for big selection 85 to 265 VAC inputs, right the power issue, and supply the DC output(s) to the system. All that is completed throughout the identical measurement constraints of a single “full brick” package deal measuring solely 2.4” W x 4.6” L x 0.5” H, thus offering a 50% board house financial savings (Determine 3).

These built-in 2-in-1 pcb-mounted Power Bricks are perfect for Distributed Power Architectures the place POL (Level of Load) Converters are wanted. For the reason that 2-in-1 Power Bricks present the conversion from AC to DC (with PFHC) together with the wanted isolation, and the Intermediate Bus Voltage, the use of a number of low-cost, non-isolated POL converters turns into fairly sensible (Determine 4).

Latest advances in parts and power design applied sciences have made these new
2-in-1 pcb-mount power bricks attainable. In an effort to improve power densities, particular Permalloy cores have been developed and employed within the inductors. New substrates and modern transformer winding methods have facilitated element height compressions and improved thermal administration. And, of course, advances in built-in and hybrid circuits have contributed drastically to this subsequent technology of power merchandise.

Purposes of 2-in-1 AC-DC Power Bricks

These new “2-in-1” AC-DC power bricks are perfect for many outside and indoor purposes together with:

  • Customized Power Provides
  • PCB Mounted Bulk Power for A number of DC-DC or POL Converters
  • Massive LED & Liquid Crystal Shows
  • Site visitors Data, Management, & Signaling Gear
  • Toll Gadgets
  • Pico & Cell Cellphone Repeaters
  • WiFi, Telecom Sub-Stations
  • Underwater Surveying Gadgets
  • Automated Cross-Studying-Gadgets for FastTrac Automotive Lanes
  • Oil Pumping & Pipeline Monitoring Gadgets
  • Security Methods

New 2-in-1 AC-DC Power Bricks

Lambda, a unit of TDK Corp., is presently one of the producers of a new vary of built-in “single-brick” AC-DC power bricks. These “2-in-1” pcb-mount gadgets are so modern, they’ve seven patents pending.

Some of the salient features of Lambda’s single-brick AC-DC PFE Sequence power modules embrace:

  • Operates from Common 85 to 265VAC, 47-63Hz Enter
  • Power Issue & Harmonic Correction Meets EN61000-3-2
  • Low Profile, Single-Brick Footprint
  • Excessive Power Density (as much as 129W/in3) & Effectivity (as much as 90%)
  • Regulated and Remoted DC Outputs with Extensive Working Temperatures (at baseplate)
  • PFE500-12: 12VDC Output, 400 Watts, -40 to +85°C
  • PFE500-28: 24 to 28VDC Output, 500 Watts, -40 to +100°C
  • PFE500-48: 48VDC Output, 500 Watts, -40 to +100°C
  • PFE700-48: 51VDC Output (semi-regulated), 714 Watts, -40 to +85°C
  • ±20% Output Voltage Adjustment Vary
  • Over Voltage/Present/Temperature Protection
  • Accredited to UL/CSA/EN60950-1, CE Marked, & RoHS Compliant
  • Non-obligatory Heatsinks & Analysis Kits Out there